By Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC
This booklet deals either skilled cardiologists and trainees alike the chance to spot and handle the most typical pitfalls encountered with echocardiology in regimen medical perform. The e-book covers a sequence of demanding situations starting from technical problems to issues of echocardiographic interpretation with each one part proposing a sequence of simulations to check the reader's realizing of the matter. The textual content is written in a hugely sensible and didactic type in an effort to support the busy doctor by way of providing the data in a succinct, 'essentials simply' demeanour. The heavy use of fine quality illustrations serves to make sure that the thoughts defined are supported via real-life examples and therefore simply appropriate to the medical setting.Edited through a global expert.Abundant use of full-colour permits exact illustration of pictures to have the funds for specific dialogue of the innovations involved.Didactic technique guarantees supply of key details in practicable parts hence saving time for the busy cardiologist.Includes the main common pitfalls linked to a number thoughts hence making sure applicability to numerous medical settings and gear availability.
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Additional resources for 100 Challenges in Echocardiography
98 cm. Zoomed 2D images (longitudinal, parasternal cross-section). a major source of errors. 5). Conversely, a value for the subaortic diameter that is falsely too low will lead to an underestimation of the valve surface area. Finally, in cases of AS where the measurement of the subaortic diameter is not possible via the transthoracic route, it is possible to quantify the stenosis using the permeability index. This may be done using the VTI ratio: subaortic VTI/transaortic VTI. This easily calculated parameter is independent of the cardiac output and its sensitivity is satisfactory, but its specificity remains poor.
Following mitral valvuloplasty Immediately after percutaneous mitral dilatation, the PHT values are responsible for an overestimation of the MSA. This phenomenon is linked to the sharp modifications in atrioventricular compliance postdilatation. Hatle’s method must, therefore, not be used in the 48 hours following the dilatation procedure. Pitfalls when studying the degree of valvular stenosis In practice Planimetry is the preferred method in cases where there is satisfactory imaging, and Hatle’s method is preferred in cases of a severely calcified mitral orifice, subvalvular stenosis or poor quality imaging.
In practice, the maximum velocities and the VTI can be used interchangeably when calculating the aortic surface area. Pitfalls when measuring the subaortic diameter Incorrect use of the 2D apical cross-section centred on the aortic orifice Imprecise measurement of the subaortic diameter using this approach is linked to the low lateral resolution of the ultrasonic waves in this view. The aortic orifice is approached in a tangential manner, and therefore there is a risk of underestimating the diameter of the left ventricular outflow chamber.
100 Challenges in Echocardiography by Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC