By Norman G. Einspruch
Includes contributions from a dozen pros from the inner most zone and academia. Discusses a number of gadget physics issues of specific curiosity to and college researchers in electric engineering, computing device technological know-how, and digital fabrics. Emphasizes actual description, mode
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Here, the short-channel threshold shift is defined as the difference in threshold voltage between a short-channel transistor and a long, but otherwise iden tical, device. The origin of short-channel threshold shifts in buried-channel devices is different to their origin in surface channel structures. In P M O S buriedchannel transistors, a continuous lightly d o p e d p~ region exists between the p source and drain regions. Holes diffuse from the p regions into the surface channel layer , as illustrated in Fig.
Et al Channel electric fields with conventional and lightly doped drains. ) material, causing significant shrinkage of the gate, and potentially leaving a gap between the gate edge and the ^-region. These effects are illustrated in Fig. 5. It is necessary to incorporate a sufficient anneal into the process to ensure that the n-region diffuses far enough laterally to extend under the gate, and beyond any G G O structure. A short reoxidation in dry oxygen is also generally preferred since it minimizes polysilicon reoxidation and the G G O region, and hence reduces the length of the n-anneal.
However, real technologies are rather more complex, and the reasons for this a n d the implications for process integration are discussed in detail in the remainder of this chapter. One aspect that will not be considered further, however, is that of multilevel metallization. Most modern M O S technologies use at least two metal interconnect levels. Conceptually, this is quite simple, involving the deposition an addition dielectric layer, 15 3 A + 44 Alan G. Lewis and John Y. Chen silicon n i t r i d e Fig.
Advanced MOS Device Physics by Norman G. Einspruch