By K.M. Gupta, Nishu Gupta
This publication provides the newest advancements in semiconducting fabrics and units, delivering updated details at the technology, approaches, and functions within the box. quite a lot of subject matters are lined, together with optoelectronic units, metal–semiconductor junctions, heterojunctions, MISFETs, LEDs, semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, switching diodes, tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, sunlight cells, varactor diodes, IMPATT diodes, and complicated semiconductors. precise awareness is paid to complicated and futuristic fabrics. furthermore, transparent reasons are supplied of, for instance, electron theories, high-field results, the corridor impression, transit-time results, go with the flow and diffusion, breakdown mechanisms, equilibrium and temporary stipulations, switching, and biasing. The ebook is designed to satisfy the wishes of undergraduate engineering scholars and also will be very necessary for postgraduate scholars; it is going to help in practise for examinations at schools and universities and for different examinations in engineering. perform questions are for this reason awarded in either essay and a number of selection layout, and lots of solved examples and unsolved difficulties are incorporated.
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Additional info for Advanced Semiconducting Materials and Devices
4. 5. 6. 7. Thermistors: These utilize the temperature dependency effect of semiconductors. Varistors: These utilize the voltage dependency effect of semiconductors. Rectiﬁers: These utilize the impurity dependency effect of semiconductors. Strain gauges: These utilize the change in resistance effect of semiconductors. Zener diodes: These utilize the electric ﬁeld effect of semiconductors. Transistors: These utilize the ampliﬁcation effects of semiconductors. Photoconductive cells: These utilize the light illumination effect of semiconductors.
Hall effect generators: These utilize the carrier drift effect in semiconductors. 1 Element Form Semiconducting Materials Silicon (Si) It is the element of IVth column in periodic table. Its structure is diamond cubic (DC) and the atoms are covalent bonded. The bond is directional in nature with a bond angle of 109°. It is most important and widely used material among all known semiconducting elements. This is dull whitish coloured monocrystal possessing the following salient properties . 43 Å Electronic conﬁguration = 1s22s22p63s23p2 (i) Properties of silicon are sensitive to the presence of interstitial oxygen, which acts as donor and tends to destabilize the material at high temperatures.
1 The Left-Handed Dendritic Model . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 552 553 555 556 557 ... 558 ... 558 559 ... 560 ... 560 ... ... 561 561 562 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Abbreviations APD BARITT BCC BHJ BIFET BJT BNDC CCD CFL CMOS CVD COMFET DC DIAC DIBL DMOS DMS DNG DOVETT DSC DVD EGS EHP ERF FCC FET FLL FS GEMFET GMR Avalanche Photodiode Barrier Injection Transit Time Body Centred Cube Bulk Hetero Junction Bipolar Field Effect Transistor Bipolar Junction Transistor Bulk Negative Differential Conductivity Charge Coupled Device Compact Fluorescent Light Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Chemical Vapour Deposition Conductivity-Modulated FET Diamond Cubic Diode Alternating Current Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering Double-Diffused MOS Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Double Negative Metamaterials Double Velocity Transit Time Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Digital Versatile Disc Electronic Grade Silicon Electron-Hole Pair Electro-Rheological Fluid Face Centred Cube Field Effect Transistor Frequency-Locked Loop (circuit) Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Grain-Enhanced (MOSFET) Giant Magnetoresistance xxxiii xxxiv HCP HEMT IC IGBT IGFET IGR IGT IMPATT IOC IR ITO JFET LASCR LDR LED LHM LSA MBD MBE MBT MESFET MGS MISFET MODFET MOSFET MR MTJ NFSOM NIM NLO NM OLED OPV PCD PLL PLZT POSFET PSC PSC QD QW RF SCR SCS SDL Abbreviations Hexagonally Closed Packed High-Electron Mobility Transistor Integrated Circuit Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistor Insulated Gate Rectiﬁer Insulated Gate Transistor Impact Avalanche Transit Time Integrated Optical Circuit Infrared Indium Tin Oxide Junction Field Effect Transistor Light-Activated Silicon Controlled Rectiﬁer Light Dependent Resistor Light Emitting Diode Left-Handed Material Limited Space-Charge Accumulation Magnetic Bipolar Diode Molecular Beam Epitaxy Magnetic Bipolar Transistor Metal-Semiconductor FET Metallurgical Grade Silicon Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor FET Modulation-Doped FET Metal-Oxide Semiconductor FET Magneto-Resistance Magnetic Tunnel Junction Near Field Scanning Optical Microscope Negative Index Metamaterial Non-Linearly Optical Nano Membrane Organic Light Emitting Diode Organic Photovoltaic Photo Chemical Deposition Phase-Locked Loop (circuit) Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Polymer Solar Cell Plasmonic Solar Cell Quantum Dot Quantum Well Radio Frequency Silicon Controlled Rectiﬁer Silicon Controlled Switch Semiconductor Disk Laser Abbreviations SET SHIP SMD SNG SOI SRAM SRD SRR TED TFT TRAPATT TRIAC TTFT TVS UJT UPT VCSEL VLSI VPE VVR WBG xxxv Single Electron Transistor Silicon Heterointerface Photodetector Surface Mount Device Single Negative (Metamaterials) Silicon on Insulator Semiconductor Random Access Memory Step Recovery Diode Split-Ring Resonator Transferred Electron Device Thin Film Transistor Trapped Plasma Avalanche Transit Time (diode) Triode Alternating Current Transparent Thin-Film Transistor Transient Voltage Suppression Diode Uni-Junction Transistor Unipolar Transistor Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Very Large Scale Integration Vapour Phase Epitaxy Voltage Variable Resistor Wide Band Gap Symbols with Units a B Cjunc Dxe, Dxh E EF Eg Er,Et f(E) HC hf (hkl) iB, iC, iE J K = 2π/λ m*e , m*h m0 Nc, NV n+ ne , n h ni n0 R tsd VCB, VEB V0 Vd w Unit cell dimension (Å) Magnetic flux density (Wb/cm2) Junction capacitance (F/cm2) Diffusion coefﬁcient for electrons, holes (cm2/s) Energy (J, eV) Equilibrium Fermi level (J, eV) Band gap energy (J, eV) Recombination, trapping energy (J, eV) Fermi-Dirac distribution function Hall coefﬁcient (cm3/C) Photon energy (J, eV) Miller indices Base, collector, emitter current in a BJT (A) Current density (A/cm2) Wave number (cm−1) Effective mass of electrons, holes (kg) Rest mass of electron (kg) Effective density of states at the edge of the conduction band, valence band (cm−3) Heavily doped n-type material Equilibrium concentration of electrons in n-type, p-type material (cm−3) Intrinsic concentration of electrons (cm−3) Equilibrium concentration of electrons (cm−3) Resistance (Ω) Storage delay time (s) Voltage from collector to base, emitter to base in a BJT (V) Constant potential (V) Drift velocity (cm/s) Sample width, depletion region width (cm) xxxvii xxxviii αabsorption αr γ δn, δp εr λ µ σ τn, τp Symbols with Units Optical absorption coefﬁcient (cm−1) Recombination coefﬁcient (cm3/s) Emitter injection efﬁciency (%) Excess electron, hole concentration (cm−3) Dielectric constant (F/cm) Wavelength of light (µm, Å) Mobility (cm2/V-s) Conductivity (Ω-cm)−1 Recombination lifetime for electrons, holes (s) Symbols with Units xxxix SI Preﬁxes of Multiples and Submultiples Factor Symbol Preﬁx Factor Symbol Preﬁx 10−1 10+1 10−2 10+2 10−3 10+3 10−6 10+6 10−9 10+9 d da c h m k µ M n G deci deka centi hecto milli kilo micro mega nano giga 10−12 10+12 10−15 10+15 10−18 10+18 10−21 10+21 10−24 10+24 p T f P a E z Z y Y pico tera femto peta atto exa zepto zetta yocto yotta Greek Alphabets Name Symbol Analogous English sound Name Symbol Analogous English sound Alpha Beta Gamma α β Γ γ Δ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ Λ λ µ ν a b G g D d e z e Th i k L l m n Xi Ξ ξ ο Π π ρ Σ σ τ υ Φ φ χ Ψ ψ Ω ω X x o P p r S s t u Ph ph kh Ps ps O o Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Khi Psi Omega About the Authors Dr.
Advanced Semiconducting Materials and Devices by K.M. Gupta, Nishu Gupta