By Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)
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Additional info for Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2
Collections of neurons in heterotopic subcortical position may also be present. In other cases, cortical thickness and cytoarchitecture are nearly normal, especially in the primary sensory and motor areas, but there is an abnormal accentuation of the columnar pattern, especially as shown in Figure 17, in the superficial layers (Halperin, Williams, & Kolodny, 1982). Closer inspection discloses that some radial columns are normally cellular, but are accentuated by adjacent ones which are cell poor.
Cortex of the ventral and medial surfaces is more normally convoluted with a six layered cytoarchitecture. As classically described, the malformed cortex is abnormally thin and contains four principal layers, as illustrated in Figure 28 (Richman, Stewart, & Caviness, 1974). The first layer of the abnormal cortex is a plexiform zone continuous with, and comparable to, the molecular layer of adjacent normal cortex. Although excessively undulating, the cytoarchitecture of the second polymicrogyric layer shares many similarities with laminae II through IV of the normal cortex, with which it is also continuous (see Figure 2).
Laminar heterotopias are also more prevalent in the posterior hemisphere. Microscopic inspection reveals a variety of differentiated pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons, and pyramids are oriented radially with their apical shafts oriented toward the overlying cortex. Presumably, the abnormality causing nodular and laminar heterotopias occurs after neurogenesis, but before migrating neurons have achieved their final cortical destinations. Nodular peri ventricular heterotopias are probably composed of neurons which differentiated in situ, and were never entrained normally by the migratory processes.
Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2 by Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)