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Try it. Measurement is the heart of modern science, and even the social sciences are becoming more quantitative. Measurements make identifications of substances more precise and enable more scientific generalities to be made. For example, even ancient peoples knew that when objects were dropped, they fell downward. Measurements involving gravity enabled Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) to determine that the same laws of gravity that govern the fall of an object here on Earth also govern the motions of the Moon and the planets in the solar system.

Solution By the rule for division of exponential numbers: A positive exponent indicates that the exponential part of the number is greater than 1, a negative exponent indicates that it is less than 1, and a zero exponent indicates that it is equal to 1. 0 ϫ 10 ϫ 10 ϫ 10 Goldberg: Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fifth Edition 2. 9 ϫ 100, it is apparent that 100 is equal to 1. 13 ϫ 100? 0 ϫ 10Ϫ7. 000 ϫ 100. 003 ϫ 10Ϫ4. 00300 ϫ 100 The rules for multiplication and division need to be stated slightly differently to allow for negative exponents.

3. Interpret the results. See if the generality explains all the results, new and old. 4. Accept the law. If all the data support the law, it is generally accepted by the scientific community as true. If later, further experiments are in conflict with the law, it is modified or abandoned altogether. All samples of a given compound have the same percentage of each of its elements. An example of how the scientific method works is the establishment of the law of constant composition of compounds, also called the law of definite proportions.

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An Annual publication of satisfactory methods for the preparation of organic chemicals by Organic Syntheses

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