By William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team
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Additional resources for An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics
The following formulae on the left side below specify statistical models as described on the right. y~x y~1+x Both imply the same simple linear regression model of y on x. The first has an implicit intercept term, and the second an explicit one. y~0+x y ~ -1 + x y ~ x - 1 Simple linear regression of y on x through the origin (that is, without an intercept term). log(y) ~ x1 + x2 Multiple regression of the transformed variable, log(y), on x1 and x2 (with an implicit intercept term). y ~ poly(x,2) y ~ 1 + x + I(x^2) Polynomial regression of y on x of degree 2.
Term i is either • a vector or matrix expression, or 1, • a factor, or • a formula expression consisting of factors, vectors or matrices connected by formula operators. In all cases each term defines a collection of columns either to be added to or removed from the model matrix. A 1 stands for an intercept column and is by default included in the model matrix unless explicitly removed. The formula operators are similar in effect to the Wilkinson and Rogers notation used by such programs as Glim and Genstat.
Table() function to read an entire data frame from an external file. This is discussed further in Chapter 7 [Reading data from files], page 30. 2 attach() and detach() The $ notation, such as accountants$statef, for list components is not always very convenient. A useful facility would be somehow to make the components of a list or data frame temporarily visible as variables under their component name, without the need to quote the list name explicitly each time. Chapter 6: Lists and data frames 28 The attach() function, as well as having a directory name as its argument, may also have a data frame.
An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics by William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team