By Chung Bon-chu, Hu Meng-Chun (auth.), Chawnshang Chang (eds.)
Androgen Receptors is the main finished and recent quantity at the subject, together with discussions of the elemental mechanisms of androgen-androgen receptor activities, their roles within the androgen-related illnesses, and their capability scientific applications.
Key issues coated comprise:
-The discovery and cloning of the androgen receptor;
-Androgen receptor coregulators;
-Androgen similar genes and their consensus DNA reaction parts;
-Basic mechanism of motion together with sensible analyses, mobile localization and phosphorylation stories;
-Cross-talk to different sign transduction structures;
-The fresh connections of androgens to women's illnesses, similar to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer.
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Additional info for Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions, and Clinical Applications
1990). The reason for these divergent results remains unclear. , 1988) (Figure 1). , 1993). , 1991). , 1991). A smaller translation product of 87 kDa is also detected in some tissues (Wilson and McPhaul, 1996). This smaller AR isoform (AR-A) results from translation initiating at the first internal methionine (Met 190) and is generally expressed at less than 20% of the level of the full length AR in tissues in which it is found (Gao and McPhaul, 1998; Wilson and McPhaul, 1996). The biological importance ofthe AR-A isoform is not c1ear and for the purposes of this chapter only the full-Iength AR isoform will be discussed.
1999). , 1991), both of whieh potentially influenee AR transeriptional aetivation. , 1993). , 1996), suggesting that this repeat may be important for the proper funetioning of the AF-1 domain. a. , 1999), suggesting that the poly-glyeine repeat is not the most important feature of the AF-1 domain . , 2000). , 1999) . It is possible that in the full length AR protein, the AF-1 domain funetions to interaet with eoaetivators and provides an interaetion surfaee for the AR COOH-terminal. , 1995). The DBD of steroid receptors consists of two zinc fingers and is the most highly conserved domain among receptors.
AR AND SPINAL ATROPHY (SBMA) AND BULBAR MUSCULAR Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's Disease, is an X-linked recessive motor neuron disease caused by an expansion of the trinucleotide repeat CAG encoding the poly-glutamine 39 tract in the AR Nl-l--terminal. , 1996). However, in SBMA the number of contiguous glutamines is expanded to more than 40 (Paulson and Fischbeck, 1996). The onset of SBMA usually occurs between 30 and 50 years of age and is characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the shoulders and pelvic girdle as weil as the muscles of the chin, tongue and oropharangeal region (reviewed in (Zajac and MacClean, 1998)).
Androgens and Androgen Receptor: Mechanisms, Functions, and Clinical Applications by Chung Bon-chu, Hu Meng-Chun (auth.), Chawnshang Chang (eds.)