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Many such chips use a serial PCM interface. Switching devices and digital signal processors commonly have built-in interfaces to handle these types of signals. 2 Number representation and companding systems When the analog signal is quantized, it is commonly represented by binary numbers in the following processing steps. There are many possible representations of quantized amplitude values. One way is to use fixed-point formats like 2’s complement, offset binary or sign and magnitude (Pires, 1989).

15 (a) Desired gain response (solid line) of a Butterworth filter with cut-off frequency 250 Hz. The dotted line is the response of the digital filter obtained using pre-warping and bilinear transformation (analog filter designed for cut-off frequency 318 Hz). (b) The dotted line is the response of a digital filter designed without pre-warping (analog filter designed with cut-off frequency 250 Hz) is that new filter types can be achieved, since we are no longer hampered by the limitations implied by the use of analog, electronic components.

Other codes (Pires, 1989) are gray code and binary-coded decimal (BCD). There are a number of floating-point formats around. They all rely on the principle of representing a number in three parts: a sign bit, an exponent and a mantissa. 1985 single precision 32-bit format, where the floating-point number is represented by one sign bit, an 8-bit exponent and a 23-bit mantissa. 4 · 10−37 can be represented using only 32 bits. Note however that the use of floating-point representation only expands the dynamic range on the expense of the resolution and system complexity.

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