By Steve Furber
The way forward for the pc and communications industries is converging on cellular details home equipment - telephones, PDAs, laptops and different units. The ARM is on the center of this development, prime the best way in system-on-chip (SoC) improvement and changing into the processor middle of selection for lots of embedded purposes. System-on-chip know-how is altering the way in which we use desktops, however it additionally units designers the very not easy challenge of having a fancy SoC layout correct first time. ARM System-on-Chip structure introduces the innovations and methodologies hired in designing a system-on-chip established round a microprocessor center, and in designing the middle itself. huge illustrations, in line with the ARM, provide useful substance to the layout ideas set out within the booklet, reinforcing the reader's figuring out of the way and why SoCs and microprocessors are designed as they are.ARM System-on-Chip structure: · offers and discusses the foremost problems with system-on-chip layout, together with reminiscence hierarchy, caches, reminiscence administration, on-chip buses, on-chip debug and creation attempt · presents an outline of the ARM processor relations, allowing the reader to come to a decision which ARM is better for the task in hand · describes the ARM and Thumb programming types, allowing the fashion designer to start to improve functions · covers all of the most modern ARM items and advancements, together with StrongARM, the ARM9 and ARM10 sequence of cores, and the ARM-based SoC parts on the center of Ericsson's Bluetooth expertise, the Psion sequence five PDA and Samsung's SGH2400 GSM handset · contains information at the AMULET asynchronous ARM cores and the AMULET3H asynchronous SoC subsystemARM System-on-Chip structure is an important guide for system-on-chip designers utilizing ARM processor cores and engineers operating with the ARM. it might probably even be used as a path textual content for undergraduate and masters scholars of desktop technology, machine engineering and electric engineering.
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Extra resources for ARM system-on-chip architecture
These account for almost half of all instructions executed. Second most frequent are the control flow instructions such as branches and procedure calls, which account for another quarter. Arithmetic operations are down at 15%, as are comparisons. Now we have a feel for what processors spend their time doing, we can look at ways of making them go faster. The most important of these is pipelining. 3 on page 272. A third technique, super-scalar instruction execution, is very complex, has not been used on ARM processors and is not covered in this book.
The programmer generally wants to express his or her program in as abstract a way as possible, using a high-level language which supports ways of handling concepts that are appropriate to the problem. Modern trends towards functional and object-oriented languages move the level of abstraction higher than older imperative languages such as C, and even the older languages were quite a long way removed from typical machine instructions. The semantic gap between a high-level language construct and a machine instruction is bridged by a compiler, which is a (usually complex) computer program that 20 An Introduction to Processor Design translates a high-level language program into a sequence of machine instructions.
Memory may be viewed as a linear array of bytes numbered from zero up to 232-l. Data items may be 8-bit bytes, 16-bit half-words or 32-bit words. Words are always aligned on 4-byte boundaries (that is, the two least significant address bits are zero) and half-words are aligned on even byte boundaries. 3 on page 41. This shows a small area of memory where each byte location has a unique number. A byte may occupy any of these locations, and a few examples are shown in the figure. A word-sized data item must occupy a group of four byte locations starting at a byte address which is a multiple of four, and again the figure contains a couple of examples.
ARM system-on-chip architecture by Steve Furber